2000 BC Abraham received the covenant from God.
When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am Almighty God; walk before Me and be blameless. 2 And I will make My covenant between Me and you, and will multiply you exceedingly.” Then Abram fell on his face, and God talked with him, saying: “As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you, and you shall be a father of many nations. No longer shall your name be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you exceedingly fruitful; and I will make nations of you, and kings shall come from you. And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your descendants after you. Also I give to you and your descendants after you the land in which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.” Genesis 17 This initial covenant from God is conditional. Conditions breached impacted the border lines. The amended covenant that is delivered to Moses is found in Numbers 34:1-12.
1600 BC – Abraham, Isaac, Jacob – patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God – settle in the Land of Israel.
1628 BC – Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt.
1446 BC – Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.
Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.
1406 BC – the Isrealites cross the Jordan into the promised land.
1301-1100 BC – Israelites settle in the Land of Israel
1020 BC – Jewish monarchy established; Saul, first king.
1000 BC – Jerusalem made capital of David’s kingdom.
960 BC – First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.
930 BC – Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel
722-720 BC – Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
586 BC – Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled.
THE SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD
538-142 BC – Persian and Hellenistic periods
538-515 BC – Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.
332 BC – Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.
166-160 BC – Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple
142-129 BC – Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
129-63 BC – Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
63 BC – Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.
63-313 BC – Roman rule
63-4 BC – Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel; Temple in Jerusalem refurbished
(CE – The Common Era)
20-33 AD – Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth
66 AD – Jewish revolt against the Romans
70 AD – Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.
73 AD – Last stand of Jews at Masada.
132-135 AD – Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
210 AD – Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishna) completed.
313-636 AD – Byzantine rule
390 AD – Commentary on the Mishna (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.
614 AD – Persian invasion
636-1099 AD – Arab rule
691 AD – On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik.
1099-1291 AD – Crusader domination
(Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)
1291-1516 AD – Mamluk rule
1517-1917 Ottoman rule
1564 Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published.
1860 First neighborhood built outside walls of Jerusalem’s Old City.
1882-1903 First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.
First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
1904-14 Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1909 First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.
1917 400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest;
British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a “Jewish national home in Palestine”
1918-48 British rule
1919-23 Third Aliya, mainly from Russia
1920 Histadrut (General Federation of Labor) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (Yishuv) to conduct its affairs.
1921 First moshav (cooperative village), Nahalal, founded.
1922 Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations; Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one fourth for the Jewish national home.
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.
1924 Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
1924-32 Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.
1925 Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mount Scopus.
1929 Hebron Jews massacred by Arab terrorists.
1931 Etzel, Jewish underground organization, founded.
1933-39 Fifth Aliya, mainly from Germany.
1936-39 Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab terrorists.
1939 Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
1939-45 World War II; Holocaust in Europe.
1941 Lehi underground movement formed; Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.
1944 Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.
1947 UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land.
STATE OF ISRAEL
End of British Mandate (14 May)
State of Israel proclaimed (14 May).
Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May).
Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established.
War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949).
1949 Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
First Knesset (parliament) elected.
Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.
1956 Sinai Campaign
1962 Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.
1964 National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.
1967 Six-Day War; Jerusalem reunited.
1968-70 Egypt’s War of Attrition against Israel
1973 Yom Kippur War
1975 Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.
1977 Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule.
Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
1978 Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
1981 Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative.
1982 Israel’s three-stage withdrawal from Sinai Peninsula completed.
Operation Peace for Galilee removes Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) terrorists from Lebanon.
1984 National unity government (Likud and Labor) formed after elections.
Operation Moses, immigration of Jews from Ethiopia.
1985 Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.
1987 Widespread violence (Intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.
1988 Likud government wins elections.
1989 Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.
Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.
1991 Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war.
Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid;
Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia.
1992 Diplomatic relations established with China and India.
New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor Party.
1993 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people (Oslo Accords).
1994 Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Morocco and Tunisia interest offices set up.
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
1995 Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected.
Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
Shimon Peres becomes prime minister.
1996 Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates.
Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hizbullah terrorists’ attacks on northern Israel.
Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections.
BenjaminNetanyahu elected prime minister.
Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.
1997 Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.
1998 Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.
Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement.
1999 Ehud Barak (left-wing One Israel party) elected prime minister; forms coalition government.
Israel and the PLO sign the Sharm-el-Sheikh Memorandum.
2000 Visit of Pope Paul II.
Israel withdraws from the Security Zone in southern Lebanon.
Israel admitted to UN Western European and Others Group.
Renewed violence (Second Intifada). Prime Minister Barak resigns.
2001 Ariel Sharon (Likud) elected Prime Minister; forms broad-based unity government.
The Sharm-el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee report (Mitchell Report) issued.
Palestinian-Israeli Security Implementation Work Plan (Tenet ceasefire plan) proposed.
Rechavam Ze’evy, Minister of Tourism, assassinated by Palestinian terrorists.
2002 Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield in response to massive Palestinian terrorist attacks.
Israel begins building the anti-terrorist fence to stop West Bank terrorists from killing Israeli citizens.
Prime Minister Sharon disperses the Knesset, calling for new elections to be held on 28 January 2003.
2003 Right-of-center coalition government formed by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.
Israel accepts the Roadmap.
2005 Israel carries out the Disengagement Plan, ending Israel’s presence in the Gaza Strip.
2006 After Prime Minister Sharon suffers a stroke, Ehud Olmert becomes acting prime minister.
Following elections on 28 March, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert forms new government led by the Kadima Party.
Israel carried out military operations against Palestinian terrorists in Gaza after kidnapping of Israeli soldier.
The Second War in Lebanon, during which Israel carried out military operations against Hizbullah terrorism from southern Lebanon, following missile attacks and kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers.
2007 Shimon Peres elected President by the Knesset.
Israel declares Gaza “hostile territory” following Hamas violent takeover of Gaza Strip.